5-HT in walnut & plantain (核桃仁和羊角香蕉) ease anxiety and insomnia, promote satisfaction feeling and better cardiometabolic health
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Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is a vasoconstrictor, hypotensive agent and neurotransmitter, and plays a major role in regulating human behaviors.
血清素 (serotonin) 血清素最高的。
5-HT is believed to be a contributor to good sleep, feelings of well-being and happiness. It was found that walnut, plantain banana and some marines are the best natural sources for 5-HT supplement.
Low levels of serotonin is associated with disorders and problems:
- Depression, bipolar, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and suicide
- Bad mood, aggression, migraine, cluster headache, autism and epilepsy
- Psychosis, tinnitus, insomnia, memory and learning problems
- Body temperature control, Parkinson's disease
- Eating disorder, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Cardiovascular, muscle contraction and endocrine problems
5-HT (1B/1D) agonists have been used for the treatments of cluster headache, migraine, bipolar disorder and aggressiveness. During cluster headache attack, whole blood histamine levels rise significantly, whereas the plasma serotonin levels show no evident elevation. During migraine, plasma serotonin levels fall significantly.
Serotonin has a strong connection with the severity of autistic symptoms. Serotonin level does not affect all autism symptoms, but exert influence on certain behaviors such as self-harm or withdrawal.
In humans randomized to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) vs. placebo for the treatment of major depressive episodes, the incidence of epileptic seizures was significantly lower among those treated with the antidepressants.
5-HT(1B/1D) antagonists have been proposed as a new approach for more efficient and/or fast-acting antidepressant drugs. 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD). Common antidepressant medications known as SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), such as Celexa, Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft, which are designed to boost serotonin levels, help the production of new brain cells, and ease depression.
Plantain have the highest natural serotonin concentration expressed in µg/g (micrograms/gram) among all vegetables and fruits:
- Plantain 30.3 +/- 7.5 µg/g
- Pineapple 17.0 +/- 5.1
- Banana 15.0 +/- 2.4
- Kiwi fruit 5.8 +/- 0.9
- Plums 4.7 +/- 0.8
- Tomatoes 3.2 +/- 0.6
Nuts in walnut and hickory families have the highest serotonin concentrations among seeds:
- Butternuts 398 +/- 90 µg/g
- Black walnuts 304 +/- 46
- Hickory nuts 143 +/- 23
- Mockernut 67 +/- 13
- English walnuts 87 +/- 20
- Pecans 29 +/- 4
- Sweet pignuts 25 +/- 8
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter derived from tryptophan. Serotonin is widespread alkaloid in terrestrial and marine organisms, also found in blood and other tissues, primarily exists in the gastrointestinal tract, platelets, and in the central nervous system of human and other animals.
Adverse effects: The LD50 (mouse, oral) of serotonin is 60 mg/kg. It has experimental, reproductive and teratogenic effects. Extremely high levels of serotonin can cause serotonin syndrome, psychosis, aggression, stroke and death.
Beneficial effects of walnut consumption on human health: role of micronutrients:
- Nuts in general and walnuts in particular are in the limelight for the association of their consumption with improved health outcomes.
- Walnuts have an optimal composition in bioactive nutrients and recent clinical and experimental studies have uncovered a number of beneficial effects of walnut micronutrients.
- Alpha-linolenic acid, a critical walnut component, is metabolized into bioactive oxylipins, has been shown to protect microglial cells from inflammation, and is associated with lower fatal myocardial infarction rates through a putative antiarrhythmic effect.
- Phytosterols relate to the cholesterol-lowering effect of nut consumption.
- Non-sodium minerals are associated with better cardiometabolic health.
- Walnut phyto-melatonin has anticancer effects that are shared by the main walnut polyphenols and their metabolites, ellagitannins and urolithins, respectively.
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Walnut photo by Walter Grassroot and Simplewxp
Plantain banana photo by Rhododendrites and Kondah
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2018 Nov;21(6):498-504
Dr. Jeff Zhao (赵吉福), a natural product scientist, has been studying active ingredients, new drugs, cosmetics and nutritional supplements for over 35 years.
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